Tea Chemistry 101: Understanding Water's Influence

Jan 24, 2024
Tea pouring out from a potEvery morning, you must enjoy your favourite tea to get an energetic inspiration for the rest of the day. You might brew some of the finest teas in the world, but did you know the real magician behind a heavenly cup of tea?
Well, this might sound unreal. But trust me. The real hero behind your incredible cup of tea is nothing but water!

Water and water quality will directly affect the properties of your cup of tea, and we will learn about this in detail. Water can impact a cup of tea in many ways, and let's focus on areas like chemistry, water temperature and pH levels.

The Chemistry of Tea and Water

The heart of the chemical process of a perfect tea is the interaction between tea leaves and water. Tea leaves are not just dried leaves. They comprise a complex matrix of organic compounds such as polyphenols, catechins, and volatile aroma compounds.

These compounds collectively deliver our tea's flavour, aroma and health benefits. When we add hot water into this chemical mix of the tea leaves, it acts as a medium for these compounds to dissolve. The properties, like water temperature or pH, are vital parameters for this process as they can influence brewing and the overall flavour profile of the tea.

Water Quality Matters & Here's How

Water quality is one of the main parameters contributing to tea's final taste. According to studies, different water sources, such as tap, bottled, and filtered water, can impart different sensory properties to our tea.

Tap water can contain impurities like chlorine or minerals that adversely affect your tea's taste. Bottled water may vary in mineral content depending on the source.

Filtered water offers a consistent and clean base for brewing your tea. The impurities in the water can mask or alter the delicate taste of the final tea brew.

Therefore, many tea connoisseurs recommend filtered or spring water for brewing tea. It provides a neutral canvas for the tea leaves to express themselves fully without adversely affecting them.

Temperature and Tea

Water temperature can be introduced as another critical factor. Different tea types, such as black, green, organic oolong tea, white, and Pu erh, have different brewing temperatures.

The water temperature affects the extraction of flavour compounds from tea leaves. For example, green tea may brew at a lower temperature (175-185°F or 80-85°C) to avoid high bitterness.

Another great example is Black tea; it should be brewed at high-temperature water (200-212°F or 93-100°C) to bring out its malty or robust flavour. Use of the wrong temperature will lead to ending up with a low-quality cup of tea.

Impact of the pH Factor

pH measures the acidity and alkalinity of any substance. Pure water shows a neutral pH value of 7, and adding different substances may cause a pH value that deviates from the neutral value.

Tea is sensitive to pH. Some compounds in tea are more soluble in acidic conditions, while others are soluble in alkaline conditions. For instance, black tea generally benefits from slightly alkaline water (pH 8), while green tea is better brewed with slightly acidic water (pH 6-7). Experimenting with your water's pH can reveal different layers of flavour in your tea.

Hard vs. Soft Water

The hardness of your water also plays another vital role in making tea. Hard water is water that contains a higher concentration of minerals like calcium and magnesium.

These minerals can react with the compounds in tea, leading to cloudiness or a dull taste. Hard water has a higher pH level and causes it to result in a flat flavour profile in the brewed tea.

Soft water, in contrast, has fewer mineral concentrations and lower pH. Soft water may dissolve the flavour compounds of the tea more efficiently, and therefore, it brings out the flavours more quickly.

Steeping Time and Water

The length of time you steep your tea and the volume of water you use are interconnected. Steeping time determines how long the water extracts flavour from the tea leaves. The water-to-tea ratio also influences the strength of your brew.
If the tea is steeped longer, it will become stronger. The caffeine content of the tea may increase with the longer steeping time.

The Art of Water-to-Tea Ratio

Finding the perfect water-to-tea ratio can be an art form. It depends on personal preference and the type of tea you're brewing. The most commonly used water tea ratio is one tea bag per 6-8 ounces of water. However, this can be adjusted from there to suit your taste.

For some teas, like the Chinese Gong Fu style, you might use a higher tea-to-water ratio and shorter steeping times. Others, like British-style black tea, may require a more moderate approach. The key is to experiment and find the balance that suits your palate.

Water Quality and Tea Culture

Beyond the science, water holds a special place in tea culture. Think of traditional Japanese tea ceremonies, where water is painstakingly heated and poured precisely. Or the British afternoon tea, where the quality of the water used for steeping a classic black tea is a point of pride.

It's a reminder that tea is not just a beverage. It's a cultural experience deeply connected with the traditions of each country.


In the world of tea, water is the unsung hero. No matter how excellent your tea is, the water must be equally powerful to deliver the delicate flavours and aromas.

Simply put, water can make or break your tea experience.

Therefore, whenever you brew a cup of tea, be mindful to use water from a good source. It should be free from chemical substances and extreme pH levels. On the other hand, water parameters such as temperature, steeping time or even the ratio matter a lot when you look for a fine cup of tea.

So, next time you taste that cup of tea, take a moment to appreciate the magic of water that makes it all possible.

Cheers to the fascinating world of tea, where every drop tells a story, and every brew is an adventure. Let's say Cheers again to the most inspiring brew in the world!

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